Welcome to my academic landing page.

Information about my work in program evaluation can be found at www.joshualawrence.com.

Educators who want professional development resources can find them at www.readingways.org.


Student Co-Author            † Student Whom I Advise

J23. Lawrence, J. F., Hagen, Å.M., Hwang, J.K., Lin, G., & Lervåg, A. (in press).  Academic vocabulary and reading comprehension: exploring the relationships across measures of vocabulary knowledge. Reading and Writing. https://rdcu.be/OzX9

J22. Taylor, K. S., Lawrence, J. F., Connor, C. M., & Snow, C. E. (2018). Cognitive and linguistic features of adolescent argumentative writing: Do connectives signal more complex reasoning? Reading and Writing. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-018-9898-6

J21. Chen, S., Lawrence, J. F., Zhou, J., Min, L. & Snow, C.E. (in press). The Efficacy of a Book Reading Intervention on Vocabulary Development of Young Uyghur Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Early Childhood Research Quarterly.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2017.12.008

J20. †Hwang, J. K., Lawrence, J. F., & Snow, C. E. (2017). Defying expectations: Vocabulary growth trajectories of high performing language minority students. Reading and Writing, 30(4), 829–856. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-016-9703-3  (online first edition)

J19. Grøver, V., Lawrence, J. F., & Rydland, V. (2016). Bilingual preschool children’s second-language vocabulary development: The role of first-language vocabulary skills and second-language talk input. International Journal of Bilingualism, 76, 136700691666638. https://doi.org/10.1177/136700691666

J18. Lawrence, J. F., Francis, D., Paré-Blagoev, E.J., & Snow, C. E. (2017). The Poor Get Richer: Heterogeneity in the Efficacy of a School-Level Intervention for Academic Language. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 10(4), 767–793. https://doi.org/10.1080/19345747.2016.1237596 (online first edition)

J17. † Hwang, J. K., Lawrence, J. F., Collins, P., & Snow, C. (2017). Vocabulary and reading performances of redesignated fluent English proficient students. TESOL Quarterly, 51(4), 757–786. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.346

J16. † Lin, A.R., Lawrence, J.F., Snow, C.E., & † Taylor, K. (2016). Assessing adolescents’ communicative self-efficacy to discuss controversial issues: Findings from a randomized study of the Word Generation program. Theory and Research in Social Education, 44(3), 316-343  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00933104.2016.1203852

J15. Lawrence, J. F., ‡ Niiya, M., & Warschauer, M. (2016). Narrative writing in digital formats: Interpreting the impact of audience. Psychology of Language and Communication, 20(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/plc-2015-0012

J14. †Lin, A. R., Lawrence, J. F., & Snow, C. E. (2015).  Teaching urban youth about controversial issues: Pathways to becoming active and informed citizens. Citizenship, Social and Economics Education, 14(2), 103–119. https://doi.org/10.1177/2047173415600606

J13. Lawrence, J. F., ‡ Hinga, B., Mahoney, J. L., & Vandell, D. L. (2015). Summer activities and vocabulary development: Relationships across middle childhood and adolescence.International Journal for Research on Extended Education, 3(1), 71-93.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3224/ijree.v3i1.19582

J12. Lawrence, J. F., Crosson, A. C., Paré-Blagoev, E. J., & Snow, C. E. (2015). Word Generation randomized trial: Discussion mediates the impact of program treatment on academic word learning. American Educational Research Journal, 52(4), 750-786. http://doi.org/10.3102/0002831215579485

J11. ‡ Zheng, B., Lawrence, J. F., Warschauer, M., & Lin, C.-H. (2015). Middle school students’ writing and feedback in a cloud-based classroom environment. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 20(2), 201–229. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-014-9239-z

J10. Lawrence, J. F., Rolland, R. G., Branum-Martin, L., & Snow, C. E. (2014). Generating vocabulary knowledge for at-risk middle school readers: Contrasting program effects and growth trajectories. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 19(2), 76–97. http://doi.org/10.1080/10824669.2014.958836

J9. ‡ Yim, S., Warschauer, M., Zheng, B., & Lawrence, J. F. (2014). Cloud-based collaborative writing and the Common Core Standards. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 58(3), 243–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jaal.345 

J8. † Hwang, J. K., Lawrence, J. F., Mo, E., & Snow, C. E. (2014). Differential effects of a systematic vocabulary intervention on adolescent language minority students with varying levels of English proficiency. International Journal of Bilingualism, 19(3), 314–332. http://doi.org/10.1177/1367006914521698

J7. Rydland, V., Grøver, V., & Lawrence, J. F. (2014). The second-language vocabulary trajectories of Turkish immigrant children in Norway from ages five to ten: The role of preschool talk exposure, maternal education, and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood. Journal of Child Language, 41(2), 352–381. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000912000712

J6. Lawrence, J. F., Galloway, E. P., Yim, S., & † Lin, A. (2013). Learning to write in middle school? Insights into adolescent writers’ instructional experiences across content areas. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 57(2), 151–161. http://doi.org/10.1002/jaal.219

J5. Lawrence, J. F., ‡ Capotosto, L., Branum-Martin, L., White, C., & Snow, C. E. (2012). Language proficiency, home-language status, and English vocabulary development: A longitudinal follow-up of the Word Generation program. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15(3), 437–451. http://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728911000393

J4. Lawrence, J. F. (2012). English vocabulary trajectories of students whose parents speak a language other than English: Steep trajectories and sharp summer setback. Reading and Writing, 25(5), 1113–1141. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-011-9305-z

J3. Snow, C. E., Lawrence, J. F., & White, C. (2009). Generating knowledge of academic language among urban middle school students. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2(4), 325–344. http://doi.org/10.1080/19345740903167042

J2. Lawrence, J. F. (2009). Summer reading: Predicting adolescent word learning from aptitude, time spent reading, and text type. Reading Psychology, 30(5), 445–465. http://doi.org/10.1080/02702710802412008

J1. Fahey, K., Lawrence, J. F., & Paratore, J. R. (2007). Using electronic portfolios to make learning public. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 50(6), 460 – 471.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1598/jaal.50.6.4

Book Chapters

B8. Rydland, V., Grøver, V., & Lawrence, J. F. (2014). The potential and challenges of learning words from peers in preschool. A longitudinal study of second language learners in Norway. In A. Cekaite, S. Blum-Kulka, V. G. Aukrust, & E. Teubal (Eds.), Children’s Peer Talk: Learning from Each Other (pp. 214–234). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

B7. Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C., & Lawrence, J. F. (2014). Early math and literacy skills: Key predictors of later school success. In S. Landry & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Wellbeing in Children and Families (pp. 55–73). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. http://doi.org/10.1002/9781118539415.wbwell003

B6. Ippolito, J., & Lawrence, J. F. (2013). Bridging content and literacy knowledge and instruction: A framework for supporting secondary teachers and students. In J. Ippolito, J. F. Lawrence, & C. Zaller (Eds.), Adolescent Literacy in the Era of the Common Core: From Research into Practice (pp. 1–12). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

B5. Galloway, E. P., Lawrence, J. F., & Moje, E. B. (2013). Research in disciplinary literacy: Challenges and instructional opportunities in teaching disciplinary texts. In J. Ippolito, J. F. Lawrence, & C. Zaller (Eds.), Adolescent Literacy in the Era of the Common Core: From Research into Practice (pp. 13–36). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

B4. Lawrence, J. F., Maher, B., & Snow, C. E. (2013). Research in vocabulary: Word power for content-area learning. In J. Ippolito, J. F. Lawrence, & C. Zaller (Eds.), Adolescent Literacy in the Era of the Common Core: From Research into Practice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

B3. Lawrence, J. F., Warschauer, M., Zheng, B., & Mullins, D. (2013). Research in digital literacy: Tools to support learning across the disciplines. In J. Ippolito, J. F. Lawrence, & C. Zaller (Eds.), Adolescent Literacy in the Era of the Common Core: From Research into Practice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

B2. Park, Y., Zheng, B., Lawrence, J. F., & Warschauer, M. (2012). Technology-enhanced reading environments. In M. Thomas, H. Reinders, & M. Warschauer (Eds.), Contemporary Computer-Assisted Language Learning. New York: Bloomsury Academic.

B1. Lawrence, J. F., & Snow, C. E. (2010). Oral discourse and reading. In M. L. Kamil, P. D. Pearson, E. B. Moje, & P. Afflerbach (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research (Vol. IV). New York: Routledge.

Under Review

Grant Funding

Improving the Accuracy of Academic Vocabulary Assessment for English Language Learners, $1,600,000. Role: PI. US Department of Education, IES Goal 3, #R305A120045. In preparation.

Supporting Comprehension and Argumentation in High School: Leveraging Multiple Texts to Support Argumentative Writing, $10,000. Role: PI. UCI Council on Research, Computing, and Libraries. 2015 – 2016.

Efficacy Study of a Pre-Algebra Supplemental Program in Rural Mississippi Schools, $1,878,435 (Tedra Clark, PI). Role: Methodological Consultant. US Department of Education, IES Goal 3, #R305A120045. 2012 – 2016.

Randomized Trial of the Word Generation Program, $2,853,517.  (Catherine Snow, PI). Role: Coordinator.US Department of Education, IES Goal 3, # R305A090555. 2009 – 2013.

Pathways Project: A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for Teachers of Secondary English Language Learners, $2,000,000.  Role: Co-PI. U.S. Department of Education, Office of English Language Acquisition. 2012 – 2017.

Teaching for text comprehension: Supporting young second-language learners’ text comprehension in urban multiethnic preschools in Norway, $2,000,000.  Role: Methodological Consultant. Norwegian Research Council. 2013-2016.

Literacy in the Content Areas: A survey of Teachers and Students to Strategic Educational Research Partnership, $450,000. Role: Co-PI and Boston research coordinator. Carnegie Corporation, Grant B, #7889. 2005 – 2010.

The Pathway to Academic Success: Enhancing Student Achievement through the Common Core Standards, $250,000.  Role: Co-PI. California Postsecondary Education Commission Improving Teacher Quality Grants Program. 2011 – 2013.

The Research of Xinjiang Uyghur Young Children’s Chinese emergent literacy development, $32,113. Role: Methodological Consultant. The Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China. 2011-2013.

Discussion of Socioscientific Issues in Classrooms to Develop Youth’s Scientific Literacy about Climate Change, $5,000.  Role: Co-PI. University of California, Irvine Environmental Institute. 2012-2013.

Technology Enhancement Competitive Grant, $250,000. Massachusetts Department of Education, Office of Instructional Technology. Role: Co-author and coordinator. Grant to implement and assess a one-to-one laptop computer initiatives for two years. 2007 – 2009.

Secondary School Grant Program, $ 16,000. Massachusetts Department of Education, Office of Reading. Role: Author and coordinator. Grant to support planning and assessment to support adolescent learning outcomes at Timilty Middle School in Boston. 2006 – 2007.

Doctoral Student Supervision

Who received their Ph.D.

  • Alex Lin, Advisor
  • Anny Jin Kyoung Hwang, Advisor

Pre-dissertation Committee

  • Huy Chung, Member
  • Youngmin Park, Member
  • Soobin Yim, Member

Other Research Supervision

  • Joanna Yau, Advisor, Directed Individual/Independent Study
  • Judy Liu, Advisor, Directed Individual/Independent Study
  • Tyler Watts, Advisor, Directed Individual/Independent Study
  • Joanna Yao, Advisor, Directed Individual/Independent Study

Other Research Supervision

Directed Individual/Independent Study

  • Danhong Yu, Advisor
  • Donna Gao, Advisor


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All Definitions File:


Senses and Meanings within and across POS:




You can access data files here directly from Stata with

webuse set http://www.readingresearch.info/data/

*** Meaning and sense ratings with all definitions
webuse all_defs2.dta

*** Meaning and sense ratings aggregated at word or word & part of speech
webuse poly_values2.dta

*** Semantic precision ratings for all definitions of many words
webuse precision_all_defs.dta

*** Standardized semantic precision ratings for AWL words (averaged across meanings)
webuse precision_awl.dta