Student Co-Author            † Student Whom I Advise

J23. Lawrence, J. F., Hagen, Å.M., Hwang, J.K., Lin, G., & Lervåg, A. (2019).  Academic vocabulary and reading comprehension: exploring the relationships across measures of vocabulary knowledge. Reading and Writing.

J22. Taylor, K. S., Lawrence, J. F., Connor, C. M., & Snow, C. E. (2018). Cognitive and linguistic features of adolescent argumentative writing: Do connectives signal more complex reasoning? Reading and Writing. Argumentative Organizer

J21. Chen, S., Lawrence, J. F., Zhou, J., Min, L. & Snow, C.E. (in press). The Efficacy of a Book Reading Intervention on Vocabulary Development of Young Uyghur Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Early Childhood Research Quarterly.

J20. †Hwang, J. K., Lawrence, J. F., & Snow, C. E. (2017). Defying expectations: Vocabulary growth trajectories of high performing language minority students. Reading and Writing, 30(4), 829–856.  (online first edition)

J19. Grøver, V., Lawrence, J. F., & Rydland, V. (2016). Bilingual preschool children’s second-language vocabulary development: The role of first-language vocabulary skills and second-language talk input. International Journal of Bilingualism, 76, 136700691666638.

J18. Lawrence, J. F., Francis, D., Paré-Blagoev, E.J., & Snow, C. E. (2017). The Poor Get Richer: Heterogeneity in the Efficacy of a School-Level Intervention for Academic Language. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 10(4), 767–793. (online first edition)

J17. † Hwang, J. K., Lawrence, J. F., Collins, P., & Snow, C. (2017). Vocabulary and reading performances of redesignated fluent English proficient students. TESOL Quarterly, 51(4), 757–786.

J16. † Lin, A.R., Lawrence, J.F., Snow, C.E., & † Taylor, K. (2016). Assessing adolescents’ communicative self-efficacy to discuss controversial issues: Findings from a randomized study of the Word Generation program. Theory and Research in Social Education, 44(3), 316-343

J15. Lawrence, J. F., ‡ Niiya, M., & Warschauer, M. (2016). Narrative writing in digital formats: Interpreting the impact of audience. Psychology of Language and Communication, 20(1).

J14. †Lin, A. R., Lawrence, J. F., & Snow, C. E. (2015).  Teaching urban youth about controversial issues: Pathways to becoming active and informed citizens. Citizenship, Social and Economics Education, 14(2), 103–119.

J13. Lawrence, J. F., ‡ Hinga, B., Mahoney, J. L., & Vandell, D. L. (2015). Summer activities and vocabulary development: Relationships across middle childhood and adolescence. International Journal for Research on Extended Education, 3(1), 71-93.

J12. Lawrence, J. F., Crosson, A. C., Paré-Blagoev, E. J., & Snow, C. E. (2015). Word Generation randomized trial: Discussion mediates the impact of program treatment on academic word learning. American Educational Research Journal, 52(4), 750-786.

J11. ‡ Zheng, B., Lawrence, J. F., Warschauer, M., & Lin, C.-H. (2015). Middle school students’ writing and feedback in a cloud-based classroom environment. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 20(2), 201–229.

J10. Lawrence, J. F., Rolland, R. G., Branum-Martin, L., & Snow, C. E. (2014). Generating vocabulary knowledge for at-risk middle school readers: Contrasting program effects and growth trajectories. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 19(2), 76–97.

J9. ‡ Yim, S., Warschauer, M., Zheng, B., & Lawrence, J. F. (2014). Cloud-based collaborative writing and the Common Core Standards. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 58(3), 243–254. 

J8. † Hwang, J. K., Lawrence, J. F., Mo, E., & Snow, C. E. (2014). Differential effects of a systematic vocabulary intervention on adolescent language minority students with varying levels of English proficiency. International Journal of Bilingualism, 19(3), 314–332.

J7. Rydland, V., Grøver, V., & Lawrence, J. F. (2014). The second-language vocabulary trajectories of Turkish immigrant children in Norway from ages five to ten: The role of preschool talk exposure, maternal education, and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood. Journal of Child Language, 41(2), 352–381.

J6. Lawrence, J. F., Galloway, E. P., Yim, S., & † Lin, A. (2013). Learning to write in middle school? Insights into adolescent writers’ instructional experiences across content areas. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 57(2), 151–161.

J5. Lawrence, J. F., ‡ Capotosto, L., Branum-Martin, L., White, C., & Snow, C. E. (2012). Language proficiency, home-language status, and English vocabulary development: A longitudinal follow-up of the Word Generation program. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15(3), 437–451.

J4. Lawrence, J. F. (2012). English vocabulary trajectories of students whose parents speak a language other than English: Steep trajectories and sharp summer setback. Reading and Writing, 25(5), 1113–1141.

J3. Snow, C. E., Lawrence, J. F., & White, C. (2009). Generating knowledge of academic language among urban middle school students. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2(4), 325–344.

J2. Lawrence, J. F. (2009). Summer reading: Predicting adolescent word learning from aptitude, time spent reading, and text type. Reading Psychology, 30(5), 445–465.

J1. Fahey, K., Lawrence, J. F., & Paratore, J. R. (2007). Using electronic portfolios to make learning public. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 50(6), 460 – 471.

Book Chapters

B9. Hwang, J. K., & Lawrence, J.F. (2018). Different Patterns of Reading Growth Trajectories among Adolescent Dual Language Learners and English-Only Students. In D. L. Baker, D. L. Basaraba, & C. Richards-Tutor (Eds.), Second Language Acquisition: Methods, Perspectives and Challenges (pp. 17–39). Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated. Retrieved from

B8. Rydland, V., Grøver, V., & Lawrence, J. F. (2014). The potential and challenges of learning words from peers in preschool. A longitudinal study of second language learners in Norway. In A. Cekaite, S. Blum-Kulka, V. G. Aukrust, & E. Teubal (Eds.), Children’s Peer Talk: Learning from Each Other (pp. 214–234). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

B7. Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C., & Lawrence, J. F. (2014). Early math and literacy skills: Key predictors of later school success. In S. Landry & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Wellbeing in Children and Families (pp. 55–73). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

B6. Ippolito, J., & Lawrence, J. F. (2013). Bridging content and literacy knowledge and instruction: A framework for supporting secondary teachers and students. In J. Ippolito, J. F. Lawrence, & C. Zaller (Eds.), Adolescent Literacy in the Era of the Common Core: From Research into Practice (pp. 1–12). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

B5. Galloway, E. P., Lawrence, J. F., & Moje, E. B. (2013). Research in disciplinary literacy: Challenges and instructional opportunities in teaching disciplinary texts. In J. Ippolito, J. F. Lawrence, & C. Zaller (Eds.), Adolescent Literacy in the Era of the Common Core: From Research into Practice (pp. 13–36). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

B4. Lawrence, J. F., Maher, B., & Snow, C. E. (2013). Research in vocabulary: Word power for content-area learning. In J. Ippolito, J. F. Lawrence, & C. Zaller (Eds.), Adolescent Literacy in the Era of the Common Core: From Research into Practice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

B3. Lawrence, J. F., Warschauer, M., Zheng, B., & Mullins, D. (2013). Research in digital literacy: Tools to support learning across the disciplines. In J. Ippolito, J. F. Lawrence, & C. Zaller (Eds.), Adolescent Literacy in the Era of the Common Core: From Research into Practice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

B2. Park, Y., Zheng, B., Lawrence, J. F., & Warschauer, M. (2012). Technology-enhanced reading environments. In M. Thomas, H. Reinders, & M. Warschauer (Eds.), Contemporary Computer-Assisted Language Learning. New York: Bloomsury Academic.

B1. Lawrence, J. F., & Snow, C. E. (2010). Oral discourse and reading. In M. L. Kamil, P. D. Pearson, E. B. Moje, & P. Afflerbach (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research (Vol. IV). New York: Routledge.

Under Review

Grant Funding

Improving the Accuracy of Academic Vocabulary Assessment for English Language Learners, $1,600,000. Role: PI. US Department of Education, IES Goal 3, #R305A120045. In preparation.

Supporting Comprehension and Argumentation in High School: Leveraging Multiple Texts to Support Argumentative Writing, $10,000. Role: PI. UCI Council on Research, Computing, and Libraries. 2015 – 2016.

Efficacy Study of a Pre-Algebra Supplemental Program in Rural Mississippi Schools, $1,878,435 (Tedra Clark, PI). Role: Methodological Consultant. US Department of Education, IES Goal 3, #R305A120045. 2012 – 2016.

Randomized Trial of the Word Generation Program, $2,853,517.  (Catherine Snow, PI). Role: Coordinator.US Department of Education, IES Goal 3, # R305A090555. 2009 – 2013.

Pathways Project: A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for Teachers of Secondary English Language Learners, $2,000,000.  Role: Co-PI. U.S. Department of Education, Office of English Language Acquisition. 2012 – 2017.

Teaching for text comprehension: Supporting young second-language learners’ text comprehension in urban multiethnic preschools in Norway, $2,000,000.  Role: Methodological Consultant. Norwegian Research Council. 2013-2016.

Literacy in the Content Areas: A survey of Teachers and Students to Strategic Educational Research Partnership, $450,000. Role: Co-PI and Boston research coordinator. Carnegie Corporation, Grant B, #7889. 2005 – 2010.

The Pathway to Academic Success: Enhancing Student Achievement through the Common Core Standards, $250,000.  Role: Co-PI. California Postsecondary Education Commission Improving Teacher Quality Grants Program. 2011 – 2013.

The Research of Xinjiang Uyghur Young Children’s Chinese emergent literacy development, $32,113. Role: Methodological Consultant. The Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China. 2011-2013.

Discussion of Socioscientific Issues in Classrooms to Develop Youth’s Scientific Literacy about Climate Change, $5,000.  Role: Co-PI. University of California, Irvine Environmental Institute. 2012-2013.

Technology Enhancement Competitive Grant, $250,000. Massachusetts Department of Education, Office of Instructional Technology. Role: Co-author and coordinator. Grant to implement and assess a one-to-one laptop computer initiatives for two years. 2007 – 2009.

Secondary School Grant Program, $ 16,000. Massachusetts Department of Education, Office of Reading. Role: Author and coordinator. Grant to support planning and assessment to support adolescent learning outcomes at Timilty Middle School in Boston. 2006 – 2007.

Doctoral Student Supervision

Current Student

Who received their Ph.D.

  • Alex Lin, Advisor
  • Anny Jin Kyoung Hwang, Advisor

Pre-dissertation Committee

  • Huy Chung, Member
  • Youngmin Park, Member
  • Soobin Yim, Member

Other Research Supervision

  • Joanna Yau, Advisor, Directed Individual/Independent Study
  • Judy Liu, Advisor, Directed Individual/Independent Study
  • Tyler Watts, Advisor, Directed Individual/Independent Study
  • Joanna Yao, Advisor, Directed Individual/Independent Study

Other Research Supervision

Directed Individual/Independent Study

  • Danhong Yu, Advisor
  • Donna Gao, Advisor


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All Definitions File:

Senses and Meanings within and across POS:



You can access data files here directly from Stata with

webuse set

*** Meaning and sense ratings with all definitions
webuse all_defs2.dta

*** Meaning and sense ratings aggregated at word or word & part of speech
webuse poly_values2.dta

*** Semantic precision ratings for all definitions of many words
webuse precision_all_defs.dta

*** Standardized semantic precision ratings for AWL words (averaged across meanings)
webuse precision_awl.dta